The Marikana massacre, which took place on 16 August 2012, was the most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since 1976. The former union leader – Cyril Ramaphosa, from his position on the board of Lonmin, could have argued for negotiation, even for a better deal for the workers. Instead – as a chain of emails released to the Farlam inquiry disclosed – he argued for the police to move in. In a message to fellow directors, he wrote: „The terrible events that have unfolded cannot be described as a labour dispute. They are plainly dastardly criminal and must be characterised as such… There needs to be concomitant action to address this situation.“

Covid-19 and the harsh and rough manner South Africa reacts